Daria Pašalić
Department of Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry
Zagreb University School of Medicine
Šalata ul 2.
10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Phone +385 (1) 4590 205; +385 (1) 4566 940
E-mail: dariapasalic [at] gmail [dot] com

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Žanić Grubišić T, Čepelak I.ZR3-1: Graduate and postgraduate education of medical biochemists in Croatia: comparison with European concepts. Biochemia Medica 2009;19(Suppl 1):S97-S98.
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Haematology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Corresponding author:tihana_zanic [at] yahoo [dot] co [dot] uk
Academic curricula for graduate and postgraduate studies in Medical Biochemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb are organised to provide knowledge for multidisciplinary character of the profession what is needed for successful application of scientific results in the clinical practice. The program is harmonised with recommendations of European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Academic education is lasting 5 years that are followed by 4-5 years of specialisation and training in the health care system.
Study program for Masters Degree in Medical Biochemistry is composed of 10 semesters (5 years and 300 ECTS credits). The main goals of graduate and postgraduate education are performed on 3 levels:
1) gaining knowledge and comprehension of (i) basic natural sciences (mathematics. chemistry, physics, statistics, biochemistry, biology) and (ii) basic biomedical sciences (anatomy, physiology, patophysiology, histology, cytology, immunology, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, parasitology, pharmacology)
2) gaining knowledge, comprehension and capacities to apply, analyse and evaluate professional medical biochemical expertise in: clinical biochemistry, biochemical and molecular diagnostics in haematology, clinical immunology, blood banking, clinical cytology, microbiology, analytical toxicology, evidence based laboratory medicine, point of care, and
3) developing generic skills and related expertise in communication, clinical laboratory management and organisation, automatisation and informatisation of laboratory practise.
The syllabus is composed of: 28% basic sciences, 12% biomedical sciences, 45% professional subjects and 15% elective courses calculated according to ECTS credits. Similar conception of educational program is applied in other countries in European Union that have science and pharmacy educated professionals continuing further specialist education in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Science or pharmacy educated professionals comprise about two thirds of the total 30.000 practising professionals in EU, and one third is medically educated.
The program is organised as to integrate basic knowledge and professional skills. Clinical training is starting already at the first academic year in intensive collaboration with clinical hospitals. Successful candidate that has graduated this program is equipped with general knowledge in medical biochemistry and competences needed to organise, apply and introduce new technologies in laboratory practice and to evaluate laboratory findings, in particular quality control and expert selection of analytical procedures, making her/him competent member of medical team that is providing health care for the patients.
Postgraduate doctoral studies at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry are providing scientific and research education for medical biochemists and other academics trained in biomedicine and health care, or in natural sciences. The main goal is to provide education for competent scientific research in scientific institutes, university clinics and pharmaceutical industry. For that purpose doctoral studies are offering environment for scientific research in specific fields of medical biochemistry and general biomedicine.
Doctoral studies are organised in 3-4 years for regular, and 6-8 years for students that are not employed at the universities or institutes. Postgraduate program is mainly based on research connected with the doctoral thesis and to lesser extent on organised courses. The doctoral degree is obtained after successful evaluation of research activities and defending of doctoral thesis.
Dršata J. ZR3-2: Education of laboratory technicians and specialists in laboratory methods in the Czech Republic. Example of the Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy. Biochemia Medica 2009;19(Suppl 1):S98-S99.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Corresponding author:Jaroslav [dot] Drsata [at] faf [dot] cuni [dot] cz
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy offers, besides the five-year Pharmacy Master study course, also the program of Healthcare Bioanalytics. The program is drawn up according to the Czech law No. 96/2004, which defines conditions for education of Laboratory technicians and Specialists in laboratory methods. In accord with recommendation of Bologna declaration, the program comprises of two steps – a three-year Bachelor studies, and a linking-up two-year Master program.
The graduate from Bachelor studies is a university-trained healthcare professional capable of working in all types of clinical and sanitary service laboratories at position of Laboratory technician. The graduate from the Master program is trained for independent work and management activities in all types of clinical laboratories and sanitary service at position of Specialist in laboratory methods. The Master studies in Hradec Králové represent the only complete program for education of non-medical healthcare laboratory specialists accredited in the Czech Republic. The graduate is prepared to be advisor to physicians and to laboratory co-workers in laboratory methods, in the clinical relevance of laboratory results and in their interpretation. The graduate from the Master studies may continue her/his education in doctoral studies (PhD).
A survey of the current curriculum of the program as well as comparison of this type of studies to former secondary school education preparing Laboratory technicians will be discussed.control samples are analyzed according to the manufacturer’s instructions of blood gas analyzers.
Marc J.ZR3-3: Education in laboratory (bio)medicine at University of Ljubljana. Biochemia Medica 2009;19(Suppl 1):S99-S100.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Corresponding author:janja [dot] marc [at] ffa [dot] uni-lj [dot] si
The laboratory biomedicine (LBM) study program is carried out at Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Ljubljana. University of Ljubljana is one of three universities in Slovenia which was founded in 1919 on the basis of centuries of educational tradition, remaining the only Slovenian university for half a century. It ranks as a very large university, with more than 63,000 graduate and postgraduate students, 4000 higher education teachers in the 22 faculties, 3 arts academies and one university college. The university is renowned for its quality study programs and almost all of the study programs in the 2009/2010 academic years will be offered in accordance with the Bologna Declaration. Faculty of Pharmacy as one of faculties carries out four study programs. Two of them are undergraduate university programs and two are postgraduate master degree studies. The laboratory biomedicine (LBM) study program at Faculty of Pharmacy is oriented to different fields of laboratory medicine like clinical (bio)chemistry, hematology, transfusiology, microbiology, histology and pathology, etc. At the beginning, in 1995, it was a two-year high school program of LBM, however five years latter it was prolonged to three-year university study program. Since 2008 it changed (according to Bologna declaration renovated) to the 1. Step university study program, which could be continued by two-year master degree (2.step of Bologna study). The university study of LBM emphasis the analytical backgrounds, but master degree is focused on interpretation of the laboratory medicine profession. Therefore it could be possible to open the specialization of medical biochemistry to masters of LBM. In addition to study program of LBM at the faculty of pharmacy the students have Clinical chemistry (one of basic subjects), Clinical biochemistry, Immunology, etc. There is two of other studies offered the clinical chemistry subject in their study programs. These are study of Biotechnology at Biotechnical Faculty and study of Biochemistry at Faculty of chemistry and chemical technology, both at University of Ljubljana. Finally at the postgraduate PhD study Biomedicine at University of Ljubljana, there is a course of Clinical biochemistry and laboratory biomedicine what round up the education in laboratory medicine at the University of Ljubljana.
Koszegi T.ZR3-4:Clinical biochemistry: undergraduate and postgraduate educational programs at University of Pecs, Hungary. Biochemia Medica 2009;19(Suppl 1):S100-S101.
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary
Corresponding author:koszegit [at] freemail [dot] hu
Decision making in modern medicine relies more and more on the use of exact laboratory parameters obtained from patients’ samples. In order to increase the diagnostic potential of laboratory tests there is an ultimate need for improving the knowledge of the staff performing, evaluating and validating the lab results. Besides training the experts in laboratory medicine it is of the same importance to teach Clinical Biochemistry at the undergraduate and postgraduate level for students of medicine, of pharmacy and medical doctors.
In Hungary, at the postgraduate level clinical laboratory specialization is based traditionally on medical education. However, during the last decades an increasing number of people from other fields of education have joined the staff of clinical laboratories (e.g. biologists, pharmacists, chemists). At the undergraduate level at University of Pécs, Faculty of General Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry is taught for 4th year medical students in one semester (14 h of lectures and 14 h of practices) in Hungarian, English and German languages. For pharmaceutical students Clinical Biochemistry is taught in the 9th semester in Hungarian (24 h of lectures). At our Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Laboratory Analyst major presently is a 4-year undergraduate training giving an MSc equivalent diploma. This major also has a distant learning type education with the same outcome.
For medical doctors 5 years of postgraduate training is necessary to obtain a specialty degree in the field of clinical laboratory after passing the specialty exam. A couple of years ago lab experts with non-medical university education have also got the possibility to get a specialty degree in clinical chemistry after a training period and passing the specialty exam. Medical laboratory analysts have a key role in performing, supervising routine laboratory work and improving the quality of it. In the near future (as part of the Bologna process) we would like to establish a Medical Laboratory Researcher major with the possibility for obtaining an MSc and finally a PhD degree. At the postgraduate level, every lab expert with higher education and/or specialty degree is expected to join obligatory training courses and to obtain a certain amount of credit points in 5-year periods (lifelong learning). In our Clinical Biochemistry undergraduate courses we stress the most emphasis on the basic understanding of pathobiochemical processes and interpretation of test results and do not focus too much on the technical details. These courses are obligatory subjects and give a good start for future work and mean obvious benefits for the patients.
We think that Laboratory Medicine is still primarily a medical profession. However, lab experts with non-medical education gain more and more space in the clinical laboratory and are excellent partners in our work. They have the same career as medical doctors: specialty degree and PhD. Teaching Clinical Biochemistry at the undergraduate level has its major benefit in giving a better insight for correct interpretation of test results and suggest that medical doctors should consult with laboratory experts when they have difficulties in decision making.
Petlevski R.ZR3-5:Active learning and critical thinking in higher education – demonstration a technic of cooperative learning (jigsaw). Biochemia Medica 2009;19(Suppl 1):S102.
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Haematology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Corresponding author:rpetlevski [at] pharma [dot] hr
A jigsaw is one of the most famous teaching methods in cooperative learning. Carrying out the cooperative learning is a part of an international project “Reading and writing for critical thinking“, RWTC.
The following aims are obtained by implementation of RWTC in teaching: students are encouraged to critical thinking, taking over the responsibility for learning, cooperation in learning and they are trained for lifelong learning.
The teaching is based on the ERR framework (Evocation, Realisation of meaning and Reflection).
Evocation – at this stage, a teacher asks students to think about what they already know about some subject, by which student’s previous knowledge has been determined.
Realisation of meaning – is a stage in which students get into contact with new information they should learn.
Reflection – the last stage in which students are required to think about what they have learned in the previous stage.
The practical demonstration of the cooperative learning technique, so-called puzzle, has been chosen because it develops the teamwork skill. It is one of social skills which makes possible for students to be included fast in the working environment in future. The main characteristic of this technique is that each student has a chance to study a new part of a lesson and in cooperation with other students to prepare own short lecture about that lesson which is then held in a small group. In this way, all students have the opportunity to teach each other about something completely unknown, which is quite motivating for them. If each student completes his/her task well, by “matching” parts in groups, they study and learn something new.